Frequent Questions

08. How are pathogens like Giardia lamblia and indicators removed from my drinking water?

Pathogen or Indicator

Treatment methods proven to be effective for removal or inactivation


Disinfection with ultraviolet light or ozone and/or filtration.

Giardia lamblia

Disinfection and/or filtration.


Disinfection and/or filtration.

Viruses (enteric)

Disinfection and/or filtration.

Total coliforms, fecal Coliform, E. coli (NOT including E. coli O157:H7) and Fecal Indicators (Coliphage or Enterococci)

Disinfection with chlorine, ultra-violet light or ozone, all of which act to kill or inactivate E. coli. Systems using surface water sources are required to disinfect to ensure that bacteria are inactivated.

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