The following treatment method(s) have proven to be effective in removing radionuclides at levels below their MCLs:
- Beta particle and Photon Radiation: ion exchange and reverse osmosis;
- (Gross) Alpha Emitters: reverse osmosis;
- Radium 226 and Radium 228 (Combined): ion exchange, reverse osmosis, lime softening;
- Uranium: Ion exchange, reverse osmosis, lime softening, coagulation/filtration.